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Property Taxes in Australia: Best Guide for 2023

Understanding property taxes in Australia is crucial for homeowners and investors alike. In 2023, significant changes and proposals are shaping the landscape of property taxes across different states, impacting the decision-making process for property dealings.

Property taxes in Australia encompass various types, including stamp duty, land tax, and council rates. These taxes vary not only by state but also depending on whether you are a resident or non-resident of Australia.

The Australian Capital Territory, Victoria, New South Wales, and Western Australia have introduced significant changes in their 2023-2024 budgets, focusing on housing affordability and related tax reforms.

For instance, the Australian Capital Territory is moving from transaction-based taxes like stamp duty towards a broad-based land tax.

This includes reducing conveyance duty rates and increasing property price thresholds for certain concessions. Similarly, Victoria and Western Australia are also seeing major reforms.

Victoria is transitioning from stamp duty to an annual property tax for commercial and industrial properties, set at 1% of the property’s unimproved land value.

In New South Wales, the focus has shifted to first-home buyers, with the government proposing to lift the residential duty exemption threshold and introduce concessions for properties with higher dutiable values.

Western Australia has introduced a bill for a land tax concession, mirroring Victoria’s build-to-rent land tax concession.

These changes reflect a dynamic environment for property taxes in Australia, underscoring the importance of staying informed and seeking professional advice for specific financial situations.

The complexity of property taxes, varying by state and individual circumstances, makes it essential for property owners, especially non-residents, to understand their obligations and opportunities for tax efficiency.

For example, non-residents face different capital gains tax, stamp duty, and land tax obligations compared to residents.

If you want to invest as an expat or high-net-worth individual, which is what i specialize in, you can email me (advice@adamfayed.com) or use WhatsApp (+44-7393-450-837).

This article isn’t formal tax, legal or financial advice, and is only written here for informational purposes.

The facts might have also changed since we wrote this article.

The Basics of Property Taxes in Australia

Types of Property Taxes

Property taxes in Australia serve as vital revenue streams for both state and local governments. These taxes are crucial for funding various public services and infrastructure.

Understanding the different types of property taxes in Australia is essential for property owners and investors.

Land Tax

Land tax in Australia is an annual tax levied on property owners. The tax is calculated based on the value of the land you own, excluding your principal place of residence, which is exempt.

For the land tax year 2023, the general threshold is set at $969,000, and the premium threshold at $5,925,000.

The tax rate is applied in tiers: a general rate of $100 plus 1.6% of the land value above the threshold, up to the premium rate, and a premium rate of $79,396 plus 2% of the land value above the premium threshold.

Council Rates

Council rates are another form of property tax in Australia, levied by local councils to fund local infrastructure and services.

These rates are determined based on the value of each property. For the 2023-24 financial year, the base rate peg in New South Wales has been set at 3.7% for most councils, with specific areas like Camden Council seeing increases up to 6.8%.

In Victoria, the government has capped the rate increase at 3.5% for all local councils.

Stamp Duty

Stamp duty is a tax charged by Australian state and territory governments on property transactions. This tax is typically a significant cost in acquiring a property and varies greatly depending on the property’s purchase price, location, and intended use.

For most properties, stamp duty costs range from 2-3% for properties under $500,000, 3-4% for properties between $500,000 to $1 million, and 4-7% for properties over $1 million.

The specific rate depends on factors like the buyer’s status (first home buyer, foreign buyer, etc.), property type, and the state or territory where the property is located.

Property Taxes in Australia
Understanding property taxes in Australia is crucial for homeowners and investors alike.

How Property Taxes are Calculated

Factors Influencing Tax Rates

Several factors influence property tax rates in Australia. For land tax, these include the land’s value and whether it exceeds the general or premium thresholds.

Council rates depend on the property’s assessed value and the specific rate set by the local council. Stamp duty rates are influenced by the property’s purchase price, its location, the buyer’s status, and the property’s intended use.

Calculating Your Property Tax Obligations

To calculate your land tax, you need to consider the total value of your taxable land and apply the relevant rate based on the current year’s thresholds.

For council rates, you should refer to your local council’s rate notice, which bases the calculation on your property’s value. For stamp duty, you can use online calculators provided by state governments or consult a professional for an accurate calculation.

The calculation involves applying the percentage rate to the purchase price of the property, considering any applicable concessions or exemptions based on your status as a buyer.

Property Taxes in Australia
Seeking professional advice is key in navigating the complexities of property taxes in Australia.

The Impact of Property Taxes on Real Estate Investment

Property Taxes and Property Value

Property taxes in Australia significantly influence real estate investment decisions. The correlation between property taxes and property value is intricate yet pivotal for investors to comprehend.

In Australia, property taxes, comprising land tax and council rates, are typically based on the property’s assessed value. Therefore, as the value of a property increases, so does the tax liability.

This direct relationship can affect investment strategies, especially in areas where property values are rapidly appreciating.

For real estate investors, understanding this relationship is crucial. An increase in property taxes in Australia can lead to a corresponding increase in the cost of owning a property.

This, in turn, may impact rental yields, as landlords often pass these costs onto tenants. However, there’s a limit to how much can be passed on without affecting rental demand.

Therefore, investors must carefully assess the potential growth in property value against the likely increase in property taxes. Moreover, property taxes in Australia play a role in market dynamics.

High property taxes can deter investment in certain areas, leading to a slower rate of property value appreciation.

Conversely, areas with lower property taxes might attract more investors, boosting demand and potentially increasing property values. Investors must therefore consider the tax implications in different regions when deciding where to invest.

Strategies for Minimizing Property Tax Liabilities

Legal Deductions and Concessions

To manage property taxes in Australia effectively, investors often seek strategies to minimize their tax liabilities. One such strategy involves taking advantage of legal deductions and concessions.

For instance, the Australian government’s recent budget included tax breaks to encourage build-to-rent projects. This includes increasing the depreciation rate from 2.5% to 4.00% per year for projects commenced after 9 May 2023.

Additionally, the government is cutting the withholding tax rate for managed investment trusts (MIT) attributable to residential build-to-rent projects from 30% to 15%, effective from 1 July 2024.

Investors should also explore concessions available for specific types of housing. The federal government has committed to support social and affordable housing, including releasing additional funding and increasing the National Housing Finance and Investment Corporation’s (NHFIC) liability cap.

This increased financial support can lower the cost and extend the finance term for community housing providers.

Property Taxes in Australia
For property taxes in Australia, commercial property owners can explore various avenues to maximize deductions.

Investment Structures to Consider

Another strategy for managing property taxes in Australia involves the structure of property ownership. Investors can minimize their land tax liabilities by diversifying their property investments across different states and territories, as land tax is calculated based on the land owned within a specific state.

Additionally, owning properties in various entities can significantly reduce tax liabilities. For example, distributing ownership among different family members or trusts can keep the land value under the taxable threshold in certain states, thereby reducing or eliminating the tax liability.

Investors can also consider the type of property they invest in. Since land tax is based on the land’s value, investing in units with a smaller land component compared to houses can result in lower tax liabilities.

For instance, a unit with a land value significantly lower than a house of the same market value may attract less or no land tax, although other factors like body corporate fees should also be considered.

Property Taxes for Homeowners: What You Need to Know

Annual Obligations and Payment Schedules

Property taxes in Australia represent a significant aspect of homeownership, demanding both understanding and timely management. In the 2023/2024 financial year, Revenue NSW issues annual property tax assessment notices on or after July 1, using the most recent land values available as determined by the Valuer General as of July 1 of the previous year.

Homeowners must remain vigilant, as these notices will be sent to their primary contact details provided to Revenue NSW.

The choice to pay these taxes either in one annual installment or in quarterly installments is available, with due dates typically set for 31 August, 30 November, 28 February, and 31 May.

If a homeowner opts into the property tax or advises of changes part-way through a financial year, pro rata provisions apply, based on the number of days the property has been owned.

However, no payment is required until at least 30 days after the assessment has been issued. Importantly, if property taxes are not paid on time, daily interest is charged on the owed amount until it is fully paid, and additional penalties may apply.

Additionally, homeowners are responsible for informing Revenue NSW within three months if their land use changes, with potential penalties under the Taxation Administration Act 1996 for failure to do so.

Exemptions and Concessions for Homeowners

First-Time Home Buyer Concessions

First-time homebuyers in New South Wales, as of July 1, benefit from increased stamp duty exemptions and concessions.

The First Home Buyers Assistance Scheme has raised the threshold for stamp duty exemptions from $650,000 to $800,000 for first home buyers, and stamp duty concessions from $800,000 to $1 million.

This policy change aims to provide a fairer and simpler way to help more first home buyers step onto the property ladder.

It is estimated that under this policy, about 8,600 buyers will enjoy total stamp duty exemption, while approximately 4,400 will pay a concessional rate.

Senior Citizen Concessions

Senior citizens in New South Wales have access to a range of concessions. Those receiving Centrelink’s full Age Pension can avail of free Pensioner Will Preparation Services and Power of Attorney preparation services through NSW Trustee & Guardian.

In addition, Pension Concession Card holders are eligible for a 50% discount on recreational fishing licenses and can apply for a National Parks Concession Pass, offering free vehicle entry into NSW national parks and reserves that charge entry fees, potentially saving up to $190 in annual park pass fees. Seniors Card holders also receive a 20% discount on all NSW National Parks Annual Passes.

In Queensland, the Home Assist Secure service offers Pensioner Concession Card holders subsidized maintenance and assistance, including yard and outside maintenance, small repairs, and installations related to smoke alarms.

This scheme helps in planning and financing minor home maintenance and modifications necessary for health, safety, and security, or to continue residing at the property.

Navigating Property Taxes for Commercial Properties

Property taxes in Australia impose different obligations on residential and commercial properties. Commercial property owners face specific tax requirements, making an understanding of these differences crucial.

Commercial property taxes often encompass stamp duty, rates, and land tax, but these can vary based on location and property type.

Rates are local government taxes charged on property ownership. They are typically billed quarterly and are calculated based on property values.

Commercial property owners might encounter different rates and valuation methods depending on their council, and these can include general rates, utility rates, and special rates or charges.

Land Tax is an annual tax levied by state and territory governments on land ownership, excluding the Northern Territory.

Commercial properties are generally subject to land tax, the amount of which depends on the unimproved value of the property. However, primary residences are usually exempt. Some organizations may also qualify for land tax exemptions.

Tips for Commercial Property Owners

For property taxes in Australia, commercial property owners can explore various avenues to maximize deductions.

All income from commercial properties, including rent, bonds, insurance payouts, and government rebates, must be declared. Separating records for each property can streamline tax returns and enhance efficiency.

Commercial property owners can claim deductions for numerous expenses, though these differ from those for residential properties.

These expenses include advertising for tenants, body corporate fees, council rates, water charges, land tax, maintenance costs, insurance, and agent fees. However, it’s important to confirm which expenses are allowable as deductions.

Handling Increased Tax Rates

Commercial property owners should prepare for longer-term expenses, such as borrowing costs and capital works, which need to be claimed over several years.

Understanding what cannot be claimed, like certain legal expenses, stamp duties, and loan repayments, is also essential.

It’s advisable to seek professional help for complex tax matters and to stay compliant with regulations, especially given the close scrutiny of property investment tax returns by the Australian Taxation Office (ATO).

Property Taxes in Australia
In Australia, property taxes, comprising land tax and council rates, are typically based on the property’s assessed value.

State-Specific Property Tax Regulations in Australia

Understanding local variations in property taxes in Australia is critical for property owners and investors. Each state and territory has specific rules and regulations that can significantly impact tax liabilities.

Keeping abreast of these differences ensures informed decision-making and optimal financial planning.

New South Wales

In New South Wales, property taxes in Australia are undergoing significant reforms. Corporate reconstruction transactions previously exempt from duty will now receive a 90% concession, increasing complexity for internal restructures.

Additionally, the threshold for private unit trust schemes is being reduced from 50% to 20%, aligning with Victorian practices and affecting the management of unit trusts significantly.

Linked entity rules will also change, with the threshold dropping from 50% to 20%, impacting duty implications for future transactions.

Wholesale unit trusts can register under specific conditions to mitigate these impacts. Nominal duty on certain transactions will also increase, starting February 2024.


Victoria is introducing an annual property tax to replace stamp duty on commercial and residential properties. The new system, beginning in July 2024, offers options for upfront lump sum payment or fixed instalments over ten years, transitioning to an annual property tax after this period.

Other changes include doubling the land tax absentee owner surcharge rate and altering the tax-free threshold and rates for general land tax.

Property Taxes in Australia
To manage property taxes in Australia effectively, investors often seek strategies to minimize their tax liabilities.

Queensland, etc.

In Queensland, new concessions have been introduced for build-to-rent developments, including a 50% reduction in taxable land value for land tax calculations and exemptions from additional foreign acquirer duty.

South Australia offers a similar, albeit more limited, concession. Tasmania and Western Australia have not announced significant state tax reforms for the 2023-24 period.

The Northern Territory is reducing administrative burdens by abolishing stamp duty on non-land property conveyances, except for chattels conveyed with an interest in land.


In summary, property taxes in Australia are subject to continuous change, reflecting shifts in economic policies and market conditions.

Staying informed about legislative changes and understanding the impact of property taxes on long-term financial planning are crucial for property owners and investors.

Moreover, seeking professional advice is key in navigating the complexities of property taxes in Australia.

Tax professionals can provide valuable insights and strategies to ensure you are not only compliant with current laws but also positioned to take advantage of tax planning opportunities.

Proactive management of property tax obligations, therefore, is an essential aspect of responsible property ownership and investment in Australia.

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