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What Are Sukuk

What are sukuk? It is an Islamic financial certificate that is compliant with Sharia law and is the equivalent of a bond in Western finance. 

Conventional investors often participate in conversations about the diversification of their portfolios, with a primary focus on the division of assets between equities and fixed-income investments.

What exactly is the relevance of this idea, and would it be wise for a Muslim investor to take it into consideration?

When investors talk about their investment portfolios, they are referring to the ratio of fixed-income securities to equity holdings that they now have.

According to the received wisdom, younger investors should allocate a higher proportion of their investment portfolio to stocks, while more seasoned investors should allocate a larger proportion of their portfolio to bonds.

As financial assets, stocks inherently come with a greater potential for loss than other types of investments.

Consequently, those who are in younger age groups have a stronger potential to recover from temporary drops in value and take advantage of the chance for enhanced returns.

This is because their bodies and brains are still developing. People who are getting closer to the end of their investment horizon or who are becoming older may find that it is beneficial to allocate a bigger amount of their investment portfolio to an asset that provides returns that are more continuous and reliable.

Within the scope of this conversation, we will investigate the workings of bonds as well as their capacity to serve as a stable and dependable source of income.

If you want to invest as an expat or high-net-worth individual, you can email me (advice@adamfayed.com) or use these contact options.

What are Bonds?

Bonds are financial instruments that reflect debt obligations and are often offered to investors known as bondholders.

These investors contribute cash to a borrower in exchange for a specified fixed income in return for holding the bond.

What are Sukuk
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Bonds are a common tool used by organizations, political institutions, and sovereign countries as a way to provide sufficient financing for a variety of projects and activities that are ongoing.

Bondholders are then entitled to receive coupon payments on a regular basis during the term of the bond.

Since Muslims consider fixed or variable interest payments in these coupons to be a direct expression of riba, a conduct that is severely banned in Islamic law owing to the fact that it is categorized as haram, Muslims express substantial anxiety over the usage of interest payments in these coupons.

Which investment opportunities are available to a Muslim investor who wants to increase the portfolio’s level of diversity by including assets that are seen as being more stable?

Within the framework of this discussion, sukuk, which is sometimes referred to be the Islamic equivalent of conventional bonds, plays an important role.

What are Sukuk?

A Sharia-compliant financial instrument is referred to as a Sukuk. Sharia is the religious law that governs Islamic banking, and sukuk must comply with the principles of Sharia.

Within the framework of Western financial systems, it is comparable to a bond in appearance.

The issuer of a sukuk takes a different approach by issuing a certificate to a group of investors rather than adhering to the standard framework of Western bonds.

This is done since sukuk do not comply with the Western bond structure. After obtaining these funds via the issue, they are subsequently used toward the purchase of an asset in which the investor group has both a direct and indirect ownership position.

In addition to this, the issuer is obligated to engage in a contractual commitment to buy the bond at some point in the future for the same amount that it was originally issued for.

Since the year 2000, there has been a discernible uptick in the demand for sukuk, which roughly coincides with the beginning of Islamic banking and its subsequent expansion.

It’s possible that the introduction of the very first sukuk goods in Malaysia is what started this trend. After that, Bahrain decided in 2001 to follow a path of action that was quite similar.

In modern times, sukuk have acquired broad acceptance by both Islamic firms and state-run institutions on a global scale, therefore capturing an increasing percentage of the global fixed-income market. This is due to the fact that sukuk are a kind of Islamic bond.

A financial notion known as “riba,” which is often perceived as “interest” inside Western financial systems, is prohibited under Islamic law, which is also frequently referred to as Sharia law. Sharia law is another name for Islamic law.

As a result, it is possible to make the case that traditional debt instruments coming from Western financial systems are not suitable as efficient investment vehicles or methods of capital acquisition for business organizations.

Sukuk were developed as a way of establishing a relationship between the returns and cash flows of loan financing and the purchase of a specific asset.

This made it possible to facilitate the equal distribution of the benefits that are connected with this asset, which was necessary in order to overcome this obstacle.

Because of this, investors are able to avoid the constraints imposed by Sharia law while still benefiting from the benefits associated with debt-based finance.

However, because of the particular nature of sukuk, the process of obtaining capital is constrained to only include assets that can be unequivocally recognized.

Sukuk, in its most fundamental form, are essentially embodiments of collective and indivisible ownership shares in a physical asset that are associated with a certain business or financial effort.

As a consequence of this, an investor in a sukuk does not hold a debt obligation that is held by the issuer of the bond; rather, they own a fractional interest in the underlying asset that is linked with the transaction.

In contrast to bondholders, holders of sukuk are entitled to a portion of the profits made by the underlying asset. This is in contrast to bondholders.

Advantages of Sukuk

It is good knowledge that investing in sukuk is permissible under Islamic law. Nevertheless, it is of the utmost importance to investigate the variables that contribute to its viability as a viable alternative for investment capital.

Sukuk is an Alternative Investment

These organizations provide supplementary forms of financing for the construction of new facilities and the growth of existing ones.

The act of investing in a sukuk instrument will result in benefits, both social and ethical, that will accrue to greater society as a whole.

Diversify Your Portfolio with Sukuk

Sukuk, which are similar to bond investments, are distinguished by their diversity and attractive price, and they provide consistent returns on investment.

When added to a portfolio, these assets have the ability to lower overall risk and volatility, making them an attractive addition to any investment strategy.

Sukuk is Easy to Liquidate

Because of the inherent tradability of sukuk, investors are able to easily sell their assets whenever it is required, which contributes to an increase in market liquidity.

Sukuk is a Profitable Investment

In contrast to traditional bonds, sukuk instruments provide the guarantee that each financial transaction is backed by actual economic activities. As a result, these instruments encourage monetary stability and facilitate true economic advancement.

Disadvantages of Sukuk

Investing in sukuk comes with a number of advantages, which were previously covered. It is vital to investigate certain widespread issues that are connected to making investments in this different kind of security than bonds in order to make it easier for people to make decisions based on accurate information.

Sukuk Have Financial Risks

Sukuk are susceptible to a wide variety of dangers, including those associated with rates of return, markets, foreign currencies, and loans, much like other types of financial goods.

Taxes on Sukuk are Different

In certain countries, the tax status of sukuk may differ from that of regular bonds. This is because sukuk are a kind of Islamic bond.

Before making any investments in brand-new financial instruments, it is important to ensure that you have first familiarized yourself with the applicable local and federal tax legislation.

Sukuk Employ Standard Financial Terms Such as Coupon Rate

When referring to the compensation that a bondholder receives in the form of an interest payment, the term “coupon” should be used.

The widespread misconception that sukuk instruments are linked to the payment of interest is a common example of a misperception around this concept.

However, when discussing sukuk, the term “coupon rate” refers not to the interest rate but rather the rate at which a profit is expected to be made.

Sukuk Returns Fluctuate

Sukuk, in contrast to bonds, which provide a fixed rate of interest, produce returns that are dependent upon the underlying asset value in which they are invested.

This makes sukuk an attractive alternative to bonds. This suggests that the returns may be subject to variation depending on the circumstances.

Sukuk is Prone to Default Risk

The capacity of the issuer to meet their commitment of returning the investment amount to the holder of the Sukuk is related to the idea of default risk.

Default risk refers to the possibility that the issuer will be unable to fulfill their obligation. When compared to traditional bonds, sukuk provide a more secure option owing to the fact that the holder of a Sukuk is granted a share of ownership in the asset that the bond is secured against.

What are Sukuk
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This ownership position acts as a preventative mechanism in the event that the company defaults on its obligations, which makes the investment more secure.

Sukuk are Frequently Misused

When the LIBOR rate is used in Ijarah contracts rather than adhering to a rate of return that is in accordance with Shariah rules, there is the possibility for misuse of the Ijarah contracts.

Sukuk are Debt Instruments

In the use of Ijarah sukuk, it has been recognized that not all of the underlying assets are only intended for use in leasing arrangements. Ijarah Sukuk may sometimes be secured by loan assets, such as Istina’a and Murabaha Sukuk, depending on the circumstances.

What are the Similarities and Differences of Sukuk andTraditional Bonds?

Although conventional bonds and sukuk have certain similarities in their characteristics, sukuk, and conventional bonds also demonstrate substantial differences that are of the utmost significance.


  • Regular cash flow is something that investors get from each of these investment opportunities.
  • Both bonds and sukuk are examples of financial products that may be sold to investors with the intention of generating revenue for a business.
  • When opposed to stocks, both real estate and precious metals are often considered to be safer investments.
  • Investors in bonds get interest payments at regular intervals, but investors in Sukuk are eligible to share in the profits generated by the underlying asset on a periodic basis.


  • Bonds are a representation of the duties associated with debt, while sukuk includes the ownership of assets.
  • In the case that the value of the underlying asset that a sukuk is based on goes up, there is a possibility that the value of the sukuk itself will go up as well. On the other hand, the only thing that may affect the yield of a bond is its interest rate.
  • Bonds, on the other hand, often carry interest (riba) and may contribute to the financing of sharia-violating businesses or speculative endeavors. Sukuk, on the other hand, are assets that are permitted under Islamic law since they are consistent with Islamic principles.
  • The price of bonds is mostly determined by each issuer’s credit rating, but the valuation of Sukuk is primarily dependent on the value of the underlying asset.

What are the Types of Sukuk?

Sukuk may be broken down into a few different categories.

Ijarah (Lease)

The forms of sukuk that have been discussed above are generally acknowledged to be the most common in actual use.

In the context of Islamic finance, an Ijarah transaction refers to the process by which one party purchases and then leases out another party’s property in return for a monthly fee.

The holder of the sukuk and the issuer of the sukuk come to an agreement on the length of time for which the rental will be paid and the related fee for this service.

The major way in which the holder of the sukuk might generate returns for themselves is via the receipt of rental payments, which should include both the principal and any profits.

Mudaraba (Profit Sharing & Loss Bearing Partnership)

The term “mudaraba” refers to a kind of business partnership between an investor and an entrepreneur, in which the investor is responsible for providing the business or enterprise with financial resources and the entrepreneur is in charge of managing it.

While the investor is responsible for any losses that may occur as a result of the investment, the sharing of earnings is established according to a predefined ratio.

This specific kind of sukuk instrument is often used in the process of encouraging public participation in significant investment efforts.

Musharakah (Profit & Loss Sharing Partnership)

The structure of musharakah involves the involvement of several partners in the financing of a project.

While any incurred losses are paid out in accordance with the contributions made by each participant, the distribution of a pre-determined profit-sharing ratio is distributed among all parties engaged in the transaction.

Murabaha (Cost-Plus-Profit Margin Sale)

This specific kind of Sukuk refers to a certificate that has an equal value and is used for the purpose of financing the purchase of merchandise.

This financing is made possible by a sales contract, under which the things are sold at a price that comprises both the purchase price and a specific profit margin.

This price is referred to as the financing price. The Murabaha contract is often used as a kind of financial instrument for the aim of providing short-term borrowing.

Istisna’a (Construction/Manufacturing Financing)

This specific sort of transaction comprises the exchanging of a specified item, with the seller being obligated to produce or build the product in question and deliver it on a given date in return for a payment that has been established in advance.

The fact that Istisna’a sukuk may be traded on the market immediately after delivery has been finished is one of its defining characteristics.

Salam (Forward Sale)

A salam is a commercial agreement in which a seller agrees to give specified things to a consumer on a certain future date in return for an upfront payment, which is often done immediately upon entering into the agreement.

In this arrangement, the buyer pays the seller in advance for the products. This specific sort of sale is an exception to the normal norms of commerce, according to which the commodities generally needed to be in existence at the time the sales agreement is being signed.

A salaam sukuk is a kind of financial instrument that makes efficient use of available resources in order to guarantee the on-time delivery of specified goods on a certain date. This form of contract is utilized rather often within the context of the agricultural business.

What is the Process of Issuing a Sukuk Certificate?

Due to the unique qualities that define Sukuk, the process of issuing this kind of financial instrument must be tailored according to its requirements. In most cases, the method for issuing anything will comprise the following steps:

What are Sukuk
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A special purpose vehicle, also known as an SPV, is a separate legal corporation that is formed by a corporate entity that is seeking financial resources and is commonly referred to as the “originator.”

In the event that the originator has financial problems, the Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) acts as a protection for the underlying assets, protecting them from any claims made by creditors.

The transaction of issuing Sukuk certificates by a special purpose vehicle (SPV) for the purpose of selling such certificates to investors is the primary goal of this activity.

After that, the person or company that is accountable for starting the deal will buy the essential asset by making use of the money received from the selling of the certificates to the investors.

The asset is purchased from the entity that was responsible for its creation by the special purpose vehicle (SPV).

It is the responsibility of the special purpose vehicle, also known as an SPV, to send the proceeds from the sale of assets back to the company that initiated the transaction.

The lease arrangement for the asset is established with the originator via the use of a special purpose entity, often known as an SPV.

After then, the party that was responsible for starting the transaction is going to provide the lease payments to the Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV), and the SPV is going to divide those payments among the holders as lease income.

When the term of the lease agreement comes to an end, the party that started the transaction is responsible for repurchasing the asset from the Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) at the price that was previously agreed upon.

The distribution of the earnings to the holders of the certificates is the responsibility of the Special Purpose Vehicle, often known as an SPV.

Final Thoughts

The contrast between asset ownership and debt obligation is what sets sukuk different from ordinary bonds and makes them legal as alternatives to traditional bonds.

In the context of investing, carrying out independent research is of the utmost importance, and this idea is equally applicable to the investment of Sukuk.

Those interested in increasing the portfolio’s level of diversity or obtaining an income stream that is more predictable may find that Sukuk is an attractive investment opportunity to consider.

Depending on the location in which they live, investors have the choice of putting their money into either sukuk funds or individual sukuk. It is in one’s best interest to check with one’s broker to see whether or not these investment options are now available.

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Adam is an internationally recognised author on financial matters, with over 760.2 million answer views on Quora.com, a widely sold book on Amazon, and a contributor on Forbes.

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