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A Comprehensive Guide to Citizenship by Investment Programs Worldwide

The desire for dual citizenship has grown exponentially among individuals seeking greater opportunities, security, and freedom.

This guide aims to provide you with a thorough understanding of the various citizenship by investment (CBI) programs available around the globe.

If you want to invest as an expat or high-net-worth individual, which is what i specialize in, you can email me (advice@adamfayed.com) or use WhatsApp (+44-7393-450-837).

Understanding the Benefits of Citizenship by Investment

Passports vary in quality. For the past four decades, the world’s ultra-wealthy have lined up to buy a new kind of passport, the price of which is typically indicated in millions rather than hundreds of thousands.

Citizenship or residency by investment (CBI) and resident by investment (RBI) programs are two common names for these “golden passports,” although they are not the same thing.

Citizenship by investment (CBI) refers to a set of laws that allow individuals and, in certain cases, their dependents to get citizenship in a different country in exchange for making a monetary investment in that country.

When a foreigner gains residency or citizenship in a country, they gain access to all of that country’s privileges without ever having to set foot on its soil. To put it another way, in some countries, the wealthy can get citizenship quickly.

Citizenship by investment programs offer a range of benefits that attract individuals from all walks of life. One of the primary advantages is visa-free travel.

With a second passport, you gain the freedom to travel to numerous countries without the need for a visa. This opens up a world of opportunities for business expansion, leisure travel, and education.

Additionally, citizenship by investment provides access to better healthcare and education systems. Many countries offering CBI programs have world-class medical facilities and prestigious educational institutions, ensuring a higher quality of life for you and your family.

Investing in a second citizenship also offers a hedge against geopolitical risks. In uncertain times, having the option to relocate or seek refuge in a stable country provides invaluable peace of mind.

Furthermore, dual citizenship can offer tax advantages, asset protection, and business opportunities in international markets.

What is Citizenship by Investment?

Let us start with a basic definition of citizenship.

National citizenship is a status conferred by law. A state’s status as a member of the international community.

The rights that come with citizenship include the ability to travel freely within and outside of the country, to receive public benefits such as healthcare and education, and to legally reside and work in the country.

People in that state must also abide by federal law. There are countries that need absolute loyalty and others that allow dual citizenship.

Historically, citizenship meant belonging to the country in where one’s parents were born, but today, it has taken on a far broader definition.

People who for various reasons are unable to become citizens may apply for economic citizenship instead. Candidates for citizenship through investment programs might obtain dual citizenship for themselves and their families by making a large monetary contribution to a country’s economy.

Citizenship by investment schemes allow people and families to obtain a second citizenship, giving them more options for where they can reside and travel.

More and more affluent people are exploring citizenship choices to obtain opportunities they otherwise would not have. Investing in a country might provide you citizenship with differing requirements and benefits.

In 1984, St. Kitts and Nevis pioneered the practice of offering citizenship in exchange for a financial investment, making it the first Caribbean government to do so.

Citizenship by Investment or Residency by Investment: Pros and Cons

There are numerous entry points for those seeking foreign residency or citizenship. To that end, investing is one option.

Citizenship by investment (CBI) refers to a set of laws that allow individuals and, in certain cases, their dependents to get citizenship in a different country in exchange for making a monetary investment in that country.
Citizenship by investment (CBI) refers to a set of laws that allow individuals and, in certain cases, their dependents to get citizenship in a different country in exchange for making a monetary investment in that country.

Citizenship by investment schemes allow foreigners to become legal residents of a country in exchange for financial contributions to the government and economy.

In return for financial contributions to a country’s economy, investors can become permanent residents through “residency by investment” programs.

The benefits of holding two citizenships are generally accepted and often easy to see. There are, however, drawbacks to holding dual citizenship, and the purpose of this discussion is to examine and evaluate them.

The verdict on the merits and drawbacks of holding dual citizenship rests squarely in your hands. This article will cover such issues as how to obtain citizenship via investment, the benefits and drawbacks of investment-based vs regular citizenship, and the effects of investment on the host country.

Investing a particular sum of money into predetermined investment categories in a country is a legal means by which an individual can get citizenship in that country. The capital may be put into stocks, bonds, mutual funds, real estate, or enterprises.

Those who contribute to a government-run investment fund in places like the Caribbean can qualify for citizenship in exchange for a citizenship document.

Depending on the country, an investment of a certain size may be necessary. Economic citizenship programs are another name for those that facilitate the acquisition of citizenship through financial means.

Citizenship by investment programs are quite similar to residency by investment programs, with one major difference being that residence by investment programs present investors with residency status, which may lead to citizenship. The benefits and drawbacks of these applications will be discussed below.

While those who obtain citizenship by investing in the country do have the right to work and live there, this option is not without its limitations. In many ways, residency by investment programs are similar to citizenship by investment programs in that they allow participants to live and work in the host country.

There are advantages and disadvantages to obtaining citizenship or residency through investing. Possible advantages include the following:

  • By moving to a country that offers citizenship in exchange for financial investment, you and your family may be eligible for better health care, education, social services, and even cleaner air (in industrialized countries with laxer environmental protection rules).
  • Greater personal freedom is one benefit of obtaining citizenship or residency by investment.
  • Gaining citizenship or residence through investing can increase a person’s and their family’s financial stability by opening up doors to new employment and investment opportunities, essentially allowing you to spread your bets around.
  • Higher quality public and private schools and colleges will be more accessible to citizens and permanent residents, expanding the educational options available to them and their children.
  • Gaining citizenship or residency through investment provides individuals and their families with access to the host country’s political stability and protection, which can have a positive impact on their quality of life.
  • It is possible to minimize one’s taxable income by renouncing one’s primary citizenship and taking up tax residency in a foreign country.
  • U.S. citizens living abroad are not exempt from paying income tax to the United States. This is because all residents of the United States are required by law to file and pay income tax to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), no matter where they may be physically located.

However, the drawbacks can be quite significant.

  • High costs and often sizable financial investments may be involved for individuals and their families seeking citizenship or residency through investment.
  • Investment-based citizenship or residency is a complex and potentially lengthy process that may necessitate the advice of legal and financial professionals.
  • Social, economic, cultural, and political links to one’s home country may be severed if one gives up their existing citizenship in exchange for citizenship or residency in a foreign country.
  • Foreign investment, both positive and negative, can have far-reaching effects on the economy of the country that grants residency or citizenship in exchange for a financial investment.
  • There are benefits and drawbacks to holding dual citizenship. It is important to weigh the costs, complexities, and effects on the host country’s economy before committing to this course of action.

Citizenship by Investment vs. Conventional Routes to Citizenship

Investment-based schemes are very different from the traditional ways of getting citizenship or residency, such as marriage or job. Some important differences are as follows:

Need for Expenditures

To qualify for investment-based programs, applicants must demonstrate financial commitment to the host country through the purchase of real estate, funding of a business, or the purchase of a government bond.

Marriage and employment are two common examples of traditional routes to residency or citizenship that do not require a large outlay of money.

Processing Time

Citizenship and residence applications through investment-based programs are typically processed more quickly than those through more conventional channels.

The quicker processing is a result of the fact that investment-based schemes are aimed at wealthy people who are usually in a hurry to get citizenship or residency.

Prerequisites for Participation

To be eligible for investment-based programs, one must meet certain criteria, such as making a certain minimum investment.

There may be minimal residence requirements for specific programs. Easier conditions are usually set for those seeking citizenship or residency through more traditional means, such as marriage or job.

Possibility of Future Gains

Possessing a second passport and being eligible for more educational options are two long-term advantages of investment-based programs. The advantages of taking the typical pathways to citizenship or residency, including marriage or job, may vary.

Dual Citizenship vs Second Citizenship

When a person has dual citizenship, it indicates that both of their home nations have consented to recognize their citizenship. They are entitled to all benefits and protections accorded to citizens of both countries.

The absence of a bilateral dual citizenship agreement, however, can lead to the acquisition of a second citizenship. In this case, the person has the full protections of citizenship in all three states.

Investors may be eligible for a second passport in exchange for property purchases or financial contributions to a country’s economic development.

Those who choose to invest in a second citizenship have numerous benefits. A huge benefit is being able to visit multiple countries without a visa.  A person with dual citizenship can use either passport when traveling worldwide.

The majority of countries in the Caribbean do not require a visa for admission, and EU passport holders can visit up to 190 countries without a visa.

Another great advantage is the possibility of making contingency plans. Getting a second citizenship is a good way to shield one’s possessions and one’s life from potential dangers. They can set up a safety net by investing in real estate and opening accounts in other countries ahead of time.

In the event of a disaster in their home country, investors can rapidly evacuate without worrying about obtaining visas, finding housing, or transferring funds.

Investors with dual citizenship enjoy even greater flexibility. Many countries that offer citizenship in exchange for financial investment are among the most sought-after relocation options.

Citizenship, unlike residency, grants a person a permanent legal position within a country, allowing them to live and work there without ever having to leave. The best example is knowing the distinction between citizenship and permanent residence in the EU.
Citizenship, unlike residency, grants a person a permanent legal position within a country, allowing them to live and work there without ever having to leave. The best example is knowing the distinction between citizenship and permanent residence in the EU.

Education, healthcare, and living standards all improve when parents hold dual citizenship. The rights of a citizen of two countries are fully recognized in both.

Having multiple citizenships can beneficial financially. Business formation and relocation to countries with more favorable tax regimes are options open to individuals.

A country is considered a “tax haven” if it offers a low or nonexistent corporate tax rate and its citizens are exempt from paying federal income, wealth, inheritance, or gift taxes.

Last but not least, getting a second citizenship can help your business flourish abroad. Investors can use it to incorporate companies in other countries, open corporate bank accounts, circumvent currency barriers, and transfer funds swiftly. In some legal systems, the identity of investors’ beneficiaries is kept confidential.

Citizenship vs Residency

Both citizenship and residency provide some rights and responsibilities, but they are not the same thing.

When you become a resident of a country you are not a citizen of, you are granted permission to stay in that country for an allotted amount of time.

Citizenship, on the other hand, grants a person a permanent legal position within a country, allowing them to live and work there without ever having to leave.

The best example is knowing the distinction between citizenship and permanent residence in the EU.

The ability to apply for a passport is the primary distinction between citizenship and EU permanent residency.

Once you become a citizen, you have the ability to apply for a passport from any country in the European Union. With that passport, you will have the same freedom of movement as any other citizen of the EU.

This covers not only travel but also the unrestricted ability to reside, work, study, and retire anywhere within the Schengen area. With the least amount of paperwork and bureaucratic red tape, all of this is possible.

You can see how important freedom of movement is when you contrast that with the drawn-out immigration procedures that citizens of non-EU countries must endure.

On the other hand, having permanent residency in an EU country just entitles you to live there indefinitely.

Having permanent residency does not provide you EU citizenship or unrestricted mobility inside the Schengen area.

What Is The Difference Between Citizenship and EU Permanent Residency?

Understanding the differences between EU citizenship and permanent residency is helpful.

Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland are the countries that make up the Schengen area.

Most EU countries, with the exception of Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, and Romania—some of which are in the process of joining—are a part of the Schengen region.

Despite not being EU members, the region includes Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, and Lichtenstein.

The 400 million residents of the EU as well as non-EU nationals residing there are guaranteed unrestricted mobility inside this borderless area, whether they are traveling for leisure or business.

Anybody who is in the Schengen area legally is entitled to unrestricted tourist travel throughout the region. This permit is often only valid for ninety days out of every 180 days if you are a non-EU citizen.

Following those ninety days, you will need to spend an additional ninety days outside the Schengen area before you can enter again.

The European Union and the Schengen area are two separate entities, despite the involvement of many nations in both.

Whereas the Schengen Area permits unrestricted travel between member states, the European Union is a political and economic union. There are 27 countries that make up the European Union.

While each member state has its own government, the European Union has a common body of laws governing a range of subjects, including trade, agriculture, and regional development. There are no tariffs on the internal market of the EU.

Additionally, the EU guarantees unrestricted travel between its 27 member nations for all of its citizens. They can live, work, study, and retire in any of the 27 nations with the same rights as citizens of the country on their passport. This right to free movement is guaranteed under Article 21 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).

On the other hand, a citizen of a third country may be denied residency in an EU nation for a number of reasons.

How do you apply for Citizenship by Investment?

Before submitting an application for citizenship, an investor must select an investment option within the framework of the program.

Contributing to a government fund, purchasing or renting real estate, purchasing shares or units in an investment fund, investing in businesses that create jobs, and even simply putting money in a bank are all possibilities, depending on the country in question.

Some programs allow investors to cash out their funds after three to seven years.

Each country’s citizenship by investment program has its own set of eligibility conditions, which are variable from country to country. Some programs may require applicants to submit a medical exam and proof of health, while others may have less severe requirements.

All investment strategies must meet certain criteria. These include not having any serious criminal convictions, being at least 18 years old, and having a verifiable income and suitable investment holdings.

Key Requirements and Eligibility Criteria for Citizenship by Investment

Before embarking on the citizenship by investment journey, it’s essential to understand the key requirements and eligibility criteria set by each country’s program. Naturally, these vary from country to country.

Citizenship by investment programs offer various investment options to suit different preferences and financial capacities.
Citizenship by investment programs offer various investment options to suit different preferences and financial capacities.

Common eligibility criteria include a minimum age requirement, a clean criminal record, and good health. Some programs also require applicants to demonstrate a certain level of financial standing or make a non-refundable donation to a national development fund.

The investment requirements vary significantly from country to country. While some programs focus on real estate investments, others offer options such as government bonds, business investments, or contributions to national development funds.

It’s crucial to evaluate these requirements in detail to choose the program that aligns with your financial capabilities and goals.

Application Process for Citizenship by Investment

Now that you understand the eligibility criteria and investment requirements, let’s dive into the application process for citizenship by investment programs.

The application process typically involves several stages, including preliminary checks, document submission, due diligence, and the final decision by the respective government authority. It is essential to work with a reputable immigration lawyer or a citizenship advisory firm to ensure a smooth and successful application.

During the due diligence stage, the authorities thoroughly examine the applicant’s background, financial history, and personal details to ensure that they meet the program’s criteria.

This process aims to maintain the integrity of the citizenship by investment programs and protect the reputation of the country offering the program.

Investment Options for Citizenship by Investment Programs

Citizenship by investment programs offer various investment options to suit different preferences and financial capacities.

Real estate investments are a popular choice in many countries. These investments often require the purchase of a property or a stake in a development project, which can later be sold or rented out for returns on investment.

Government bonds or securities are another investment option in some programs. By investing in these bonds, applicants contribute to the country’s economic development while securing their pathway to citizenship.

Business investments, such as starting or investing in a local business, are also available in certain programs. These investments not only contribute to the country’s economy but also provide opportunities for personal growth and expansion.

European Citizenship by Investment Programs

Some European Union passports have more clout than others when it comes to obtaining visa-free travel to other countries than others, as revealed by the Henley Passport Index. If possible, you should work toward acquiring EU citizenship in a country that will allow you to keep your current nationality.

However, not all EU countries allow it. For example, while applying for citizenship in Spain, the Netherlands, Germany, or Austria, the applicant must renounce their former citizenship.

Only native Bulgarians, EU/EEA citizens, Swiss citizens, and spouses of Bulgarian nationals are eligible to hold dual citizenship in Bulgaria. In today’s dangerous and uncertain world, having two passports is a necessity. So, it is important to consider if the country you are considering will let you keep your dual citizenship.

Portugal’s dual citizenship and speedy citizenship procedures set it apart among EU countries. You can enter 188 different countries without a visa if you have a Portuguese passport.

In addition, obtaining a passport from Portugal is not expected to pose any issues at international checkpoints due to the country’s neutral political status.

In addition, Portugal offers other residence options, such as the D7 passive income visa for telecommuters, online business owners, and retirees, and the Portugal Golden Visa residency program, which accepts a wide variety of investments in exchange for permanent residency.

Caribbean Citizenship by Investment Programs

Saint Kitts and Nevis, the smallest sovereign state in the Western Hemisphere in terms of both land area and population, sold golden passports for the first time in 1984, marking the beginning of CBI/RBI initiatives in the West Indies.

To qualify for one back then, a high net-worth individual must invest in sizable quantities of passive assets in ways that further the strategic objectives of the issuing nation.

Luxury real estate and corporate shares are less obvious investment instruments than real estate or national development funds or bonds.

In fact, multiple golden passport programs were established in response to financial crises. As a result of the economic devastation caused by increasingly severe natural disasters, many Caribbean governments have turned to CBI programs to repay their ballooning debts.

These obligations are immense; in 2017, Dominica, a common source of golden passports, lost an amount equal to 224 percent of its GDP due to Hurricane Maria. The United States would lose $44 trillion if a disaster of this magnitude occurred here.

Some of Dominica’s massive losses were cushioned by proceeds from the selling of golden passports. While this was happening, governments in Eastern Europe were using CBI initiatives to help their citizens recover from the effects of the global financial crisis of 2008.

Other Citizenship by Investment Programs

Countries like Australia also offer CBI Programs. You are not simply buying a passport when you explore Australian citizenship through investment; you are also making a long-term financial commitment.

Australia attracts potential investors with its robust economy, thriving sectors, and extensive international connections.


Australia is well recognized as a safe and secure place to put money. The country’s robust economy and thriving sectors attract investors from all over the world.

Its allure is bolstered by a business-friendly atmosphere and a skilled and enterprising staff. In addition, many people around the world find the Australian way of life to be enviable.

If you want to secure a bright future for yourself and your loved ones and connect with a country at the forefront of global economic progress, Australian citizenship by investment is not a bad way to go.

Special Focus on Specific Nationalities

Choosing a country for Citizenship by Investment

It is important to consider your own situation and needs while deciding on a citizenship by investment program.

A Caribbean passport holder does not need a visa to enter the Schengen Area. Meanwhile, naturalizing as a Maltese citizen for extraordinary services could be a more challenging but potentially fruitful choice if you wish to live in Europe.

Obtaining a passport quickly is a major priority for some people, in which case citizenship in Vanuatu may be a good option. If, on the other hand, you are looking to establish a business in the United States, citizenship programs in Grenada, Turkey, or Montenegro would be ideal.

Think about the size and composition of your family, how quickly you need a passport, and how much money you have to spend before deciding on a program.

Considerations when applying for Citizenship by Investment

Finding the least expensive passports to buy involves more than just looking at the price. You may maximize your return on investment by taking into account a number of important considerations.

Passport fees and necessary investment

Cheap passports are appealing because of their low price. However, it is critical to consider factors other than the asking price.

All expenditures, even those that may not be immediately obvious, such as administrative fees, are included in the overall investment amount. Always ask for a break down in order to avoid any unpleasant surprises.

Ease of the application process

Passports that cost less are appealing, but the ease of the application process is more important. Many qualified people may be put off by an overly complicated application process.

Therefore, make sure you are well versed in the procedures, paperwork, and due diligence safeguards in place at all times. Each country with a low-cost passport option has its own passport requirements. A comprehensive background check is usually a part of these.

You will need to show us your investment paperwork, your clean criminal record, and the usual suspects like your birth and residence certificates. If you want your application processed quickly and easily, make sure you check the list of necessary papers twice.

The quickest processing timeframes are a major perk of the cheapest passport options. Nonetheless, these may differ.

It may take longer for applications to be processed in some countries. If you have any time-sensitive vacation or business plans, you must account for these delays.

Global mobility and visa-free access

Many people opt for the least expensive passport because of the freedom to travel the world it provides. A strong passport may get you into many countries without needing a visa, which will save you time, money, and hassle.

Find out which countries do not require a visa from your new passport before making a final decision.

Economic and political stability of the country

Passports issued by countries experiencing political or economic upheaval tend to be the cheapest, but this choice is not without risk. The stability of the country is essential to the security of your investment and the longevity of the passport.

It is important to keep up with the news, economic forecasts, and political situation before making any major choices.

Tax implications and financial benefits

make sure you are well versed in the procedures, paperwork, and due diligence safeguards in place at all times. Each country with a low-cost passport option has its own passport requirements. A comprehensive background check is usually a part of these.
Make sure you are well versed in the procedures, paperwork, and due diligence safeguards in place at all times. Each country with a low-cost passport option has its own passport requirements. A comprehensive background check is usually a part of these.

Buying passports in bulk at a discount has financial benefits beyond the initial savings. The allure of possible tax advantages is a major factor.

To entice international investors, some nations provide favorable tax breaks. But it is important to see the big picture when it comes to money.

Find out if getting a passport can benefit you financially by looking into the country’s tax rules, double taxation agreements, and other financial factors.

Common Misconceptions and Myths About Citizenship by Investment

Despite the numerous benefits and opportunities citizenship by investment offers, there are several misconceptions and myths surrounding these programs.

One common misconception is that purchasing citizenship automatically guarantees a high return on investment. While citizenship by investment can provide various benefits, it’s important to approach it as a long-term strategic decision rather than a purely financial investment.

Another myth is that citizenship by investment programs are a way to evade taxes. However, it’s crucial to understand that tax obligations are determined by your individual circumstances and the tax laws of your home country.

Seeking advice from tax experts can help you navigate this aspect of citizenship by investment.

Risks of Citizenship by Investment programs

If people applying for investment schemes are not thoroughly screened, there are a number of hazards associated with Citizenship by Investment (CBI) schemes. If unaddressed, these can affect every investor who avails of these programs.

Recently, the European Union and the United Kingdom eliminated the visa-free benefit for passport holders from a few nations that abuse visa waiver accords and represent a threat to international boundaries.

In the past, Canada required a visa for Caribbean countries that ran CBI programs. This poses a serious risk because unqualified citizens of third countries can buy the citizenship or passport of those nations in order to gain entry into the UK, the EU, and other nations without the need for additional screening. These nations have CBI schemes and enjoy visa-free travel.

The foundation of the CBI industry’s protection of such programs’ integrity is the due diligence inspections conducted by security and government agencies. CBI programs have previously been stopped in Cyprus, Bulgaria, and Moldova because to concerns about money laundering and corruption.

According to the European Commission’s investor citizenship report, there are vulnerabilities in CBI schemes that put the local real estate market under pressure by artificially inflating prices as a result of the flow of dirty money, as well as serious security risks (criminals and wanted persons obtaining their passports), risks of money laundering and corruption, and tax evasion.

High security is not ensured by the vetting of applications for investment citizenship schemes. According to the research, applicants frequently receive citizenship awards even though they have no real connection to or physical address in the Member States in question.

People who register for CBI schemes are suddenly granted new or additional citizenships, which could serve to hide their true tax residency and allow them to evade the tax laws in their home country.

Correspondent bank connections and banking institutions are also strained by the unrestrained money movement.

A new requirement for enhanced customer due diligence on third-country nationals applying “for residence rights or citizenship in the Member State in exchange of capital transfers, purchase of property or government bonds, or investment in corporate entities in that Member State” was introduced in the 5th Anti-Money Laundering Directive, which went into effect on July 9, 2018.

The citizenship programs are frequently promoted as a simple means of avoiding the Schengen visa application process and gaining entry to the EU and other nations without a visa. Their expedited application processes and inadequate background and origin checks on the funds added to their appeal.

In actuality, a lot of nations do not distinguish between passports obtained through investment schemes and regular passports.

Key Takeaways

In conclusion, citizenship by investment programs present an exciting opportunity for individuals seeking greater freedom, security, and opportunities for themselves and their families.

From the Caribbean to Europe and beyond, a diverse range of countries offer citizenship by investment programs tailored to different needs and goals.

However, it’s essential to thoroughly research and evaluate each program’s requirements, benefits, and limitations before making a decision. Engaging financial experts and immigration professionals and conducting due diligence are crucial steps to ensure a successful and legitimate citizenship by investment journey.

Remember, obtaining a second citizenship is a lifelong commitment that requires careful consideration and planning.

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Adam is an internationally recognised author on financial matters, with over 760.2 million answer views on Quora.com, a widely sold book on Amazon, and a contributor on Forbes.

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